Second Year History Answers

1. Most people believed that the world was flat and that the Mediterranean sea was the centre of that world.
2. Spices, silk.
3. Spices were very important for adding flavour to food and rich people were prepared to pay for these spices.
4. Sailors were convinced they would fall over the edge of the world. They were afraid of giant sea-monsters. Their ships were not very strong and could easily sink in a storm.
5. Astrolabe was used to find your exact location using the lines of latitude.
6. Speed was measured in knots by tying a large piece of wood to a rope.
7. The caravel had square and triangular sails. It had a rudder. It had a strong wooden deck. It was made of strong wood and the planks of wood were overlapped. Overall it was safer, faster and stronger.
8. Prince Henry lived in Portugal and was the first person to set up a special school in which sailors got proper training. The school was in a place called Sagres.
9. To become rich by finding gold and silver. To find new lands for their country to control. To find new people to convert to the Christian religion. To prove that the world was round. For the majority of ordinary sailors it was just a job.
10. Diaz was a sailor from Portugal who was the first one to sail to the very southern tip of the continent of Africa. He named the tip the Cape of Good Hope.
11. Vasco da Gama was a Portuguese sailor who was the first person to sail all around the tip of southern Africa and across the Indian Ocean to India.
12. Genoa in Italy.
13. Queen Isabella of Spain.
14. Marco Polo had travelled to China as a teenager and had spent 17 years there. On his return a book was written that described all the wonders of China. Columbus read this book called “The travels of Marco Polo”. He too wanted to travel to the East.
15. He hoped to reach China and the east by a faster and safer route. He was going to sail directly west to get to the east in a few weeks.
16. Left Palos in Spain in August 1492.
17. Nina, Pinta, Santa Maria.
18. San Salvador which means “our saviour” in thanks to God for having reached land safely.
19. Indians.
20. He made 4 voyages in total. His second one was the largest with 17 ships.
21. Magellan was born in Spain.
22. King Philip of Spain and the aim of the voyage was to sail around south America and across the ocean to reach India. He called this the Pacific Ocean.
23. The crew of one ship turned back. Another ship was wrecked. Many of the men on the last 3 ships died from starvation in the Pacific ocean.
24. After the storms and enormous waves of the bottom of South America, the ocean they sailed into was so peaceful that Magellan called it the Pacific.
25. He and 40 members of the crew were killed in the Philippine islands when they got involved in a local war.
26. The only surviving ship was the Victoria and it was under the control of Captain Del Cano.
27. It means to completely sail around the world.
28. The Spanish and the Portuguese drew a line through South America and agreed that west of the line would be Spanish and east of the line would be Portuguese.
29. Spanish soldiers who captured lands in south America and set up Spanish colonies.
30. Present day Mexico.
31. Present day Peru and high up in the Andes mountains.
32. They had horses, guns and armour.
33. Main reason was from disease. Also because of over-work due to forced labour. Many also died in wars fought against the Spanish.
34. To work as slaves on the huge plantations and mines because so many of the native people had died or ran away.

1. Simony was the buying and selling of positions in the Catholic church.
2. Pluralism meant holding more than one church position at the same time.
3. Nepotism meant appointing your own relations to important church jobs regardless of whether or not the person was suitable.
4. If a person who was sorry for their sins paid money to the church they would spend less time in purgatory for their sins.
5. Born in Saxony in Germany.
6. He was caught in a huge thunderstorm and promised to become a monk if he survived.
7. Luther wanted to be saved – to get into heaven – but he always felt he was a sinner and would never be saved.
8. John Tetzel was a priest who came to sell indulgences in order to raise money to rebuild St. Peter’s basilica in Rome.
9. This was a list of 95 reasons why Luther had questions about the whole idea of selling indulgences. He nailed this poster to the door of the main church. They were translated into German and then spread all over Germany.
10. The invention of the printing press meant that his ideas could be spread much faster all over the country.
11. At the Diet (special meeting) Luther appeared before the Emperor Charles V and he refused to give up any of his ideas and defended them. He was then declared a heretic which meant he could be arrested or even killed.
12. He was the ruler of the State of Saxony and he provided Luther with a safe place to stay and while he was there for a year he translated the bible into German.
13. There were wars between different States because of religion.
14. The peace of Augsburg meant that each Prince was free to decide what religion he and his people would follow. This brought peace to Germany.
15. That a good Christian could get into heaven by faith alone and not by going on pilgrimages or fasting etc. That people could find out about God for themselves by reading the bible.
16. There would only be 2 sacraments instead of 7. There would be ministers of religion who were allowed to marry. Religious services would be in the language of the people not in Latin
17. Noyen in northern France.
18. God had decided who would go to heaven, even before people were born.
19. Calvinism. In Scotland it became known as the Presbyterian church.
20. All dancing and gambling forbidden. Everyone had to wear dark clothes. Heavy drinking was considered the work of the devil.
21. The “City of God”
22. He was the first Pope to try to reform the Catholic church to get rid of the abuses which existed at the time. He called a special Council of Church leaders to meet in a place called Trent in Italy.
23. Simony, nepotism and pluralism were forbidden. Priests had to be trained in a seminary. Also stated that BOTH faith and good works are needed in order to save your soul.
24. They were a religious order of priests set up by Ignatius Loyola of Spain. Their task was to spread the Catholic religion and to set up schools
for the young and the poor. Today they have schools all over the world.
25. It was set up by the Catholic church and in Spain it became notorious for it’s persecution of Protestants. Torture was used and many were killed, imprisoned or sent into exile.
1. They wanted to have people in control of Ireland that they could trust to be loyal to England. These new loyal settlers would be Protestant and would introduce English laws and the English language.
2. This was the area around and including Dublin which was the only part of Ireland in the year 1500 that was under English control.
3. The O’Neill’s and the O’Donnells.
4. This was in Laois and Offaly. They were called King’s county and Queen’s County. Two-thirds of the land was to be re-settled with people from England. However the plantation was a failure because no settlers came from England and only eighty planters who were Englishmen born in Ireland actually came. This number proved to be too small.
5. The Earl of Desmond who owned most of Munster had just been defeated in a war. He was punished by the loss of his lands. The land was surveyed and mapped. It was divided into 36 estates. These estates were then to be given at low rents to people from England. However not enough people came and there was war between the Irish and the new settlers.
6. The two most powerful Gaelic chiefs, O’Neill and O’Donnell fled from Ireland which meant that a large part of Ulster was without strong leadership. The English King saw this as a good opportunity and he seized their lands and made plans to place new loyal settlers in Ulster.
7. This was when O’Neill and O’Donnell fled from Lough Swilly in Ulster to Europe in the year 1607.
8. The land was to be divided among three main groups: Undertakers, Servitors and Deserving Irish.
9. Derry, Donegal, Fermanagh, Tyrone, Cavan and Armagh.
10. King James I of England.
11. Undertakers were planters who were given very large Estates by the King. They had to take over at least TEN families. They were not allowed any Irish tenants. They had to build a stone castle with a barn.
12. Servitors were former soldiers in the English army who were owed money. They were also given land in Ulster.
13. Most came from the Lowlands of Scotland.
14. Majority were members of the Presbyterian church.
15. The city of Londonderry which was renamed after London merchants came to settle there.
16. Draperstown, Coleraine and Strabane.
17. These new towns such as Draperstown were carefully planned. They had a central Square or Diamond such as in Donegal Town today. The streets were wide and straight. All the main buildings were in the central area and included a Courthouse, a Jail, a Market house and a Protestant Church.
18. Many had their land confiscated from them and it was given to the new settlers. Some of the native-Irish became tenants on the estates of the new settlers from Scotland and England. However, others were forced to move away and they often led attacks on the new settlers.
19. Because more people from England and Scotland did come and they stayed. It also helped of course that Ulster was close physically to Scotland. Also a greater mixture of people came, farmers, tradesmen, former soldiers, ministers of religion etc.
20. Large numbers of people from Scotland and England moved to live in Ulster.
• Around 40,000 people came
• All were Protestants
• Most Scottish were Presbyterian
• Most English were Anglican
• Planters brought new farming methods
• Cleared many forest
• Grew huge amount of crops
• Flax grown for first time
• Potatoes grown for first time
• Over 20 new towns created
• Towns were carefully planned
• Donegal town and Enniskillen good examples
• Each town had a church, courthouse, townhall
• New and better roads built
• Great bitterness created between settlers and Irish

1. They wanted to escape religious persecution. For example, Roman Catholics from England went and named their colony Maryland. Some wanted to begin a new life and to get land to farm.
2. New York, New Jersey, New Hampshire, Georgia, Maryland.
3. The south was much hotter. It had a system of slavery. The north had bigger cities.
4. Being attacked by native Americans or by the French.
5. This was a special tax placed on official documents introduced by the British in order to get the money to pay for the cost of defending the 13 colonies.
6. The Americans resented the fact that they had to accept laws which were made for them a few thousand miles away in the Parliament in London.
7. This was the special meeting that took place in Philadelphia of all the representatives from the 13 colonies who were angry with the King and government of England.
8. That a person has certain rights given to him/her by God and people have governments to protect these rights. If governments fail to protect these rights then the people have a right to get rid of them.
9. Americans – knew territory really well. Had large support from people. Used hit and run tactics. But many soldiers were only part-time and there were discipline problems. English – had a very well trained army with lots of equipment but had to travel a long distance to fight and were not familiar with the surrounding countryside.
10. It was a major victory for the Americans and it convinced the French that the time was right to provide help for the Americans.
11. The French provided new well-trained troops and weapons. They also sent over army generals such as Lafayette who were good leaders and worked well with the Americans. They also sent navy boats which prevented supplies from Britain being sent to their army.
12. A Constitution is a set of laws which outlines how a country is to be run.
13. This meant that each State had a government of its own but the really important decisions were made by the government based in the capital city (Federal government)
14. If the President wants to make a new law he has to get the Congress and the Supreme Court to agree that it is acceptable.
15. George Washington – 8 years.
16. The ideas spread to other countries such as France and Ireland. It provided the inspiration to some people that they too should have a Revolution of their own.

Industrial revolution
1. People began to live longer because great advances were taking place in medicine. Also the birth rate was increasing and babies had a much higher rate of survival in the crucial first years . People began to eat better food such as potatoes which were high in nutrition.
2. Many people still farmed using methods from the Middle Ages. Everything was done by hand which was slow and crop yields were low. Animal and plant diseases were very common.
3. This meant that for the very first time, large areas of the countryside were enclosed by proper fences.
4. It made farming more efficient as a farmer had all his fields close together in one unit. Before this, strip farming meant that fields were spread over an area.
5. New machinery was introduced such as the Seed-drill which was invented by Jethro Tull. It was a major improvement on the old system of scattering seed by hand because it put seeds straight into the ground where birds could not find them. A better system of crop-rotation was introduced which increased food production by making sure that no field would lay idle for a year. Another important development was that better breeds of farm animals were introduced to the countryside and this also produced better meat and milk etc.
6. Domestic industry means producing goods such as clothing and footwear in your own home. It was a very slow process. In a factory, hundreds of workers could use large machines to produce vast amounts of cloth and other products. It worked out to be much faster and cheaper.
7. Britain had vast supplies of the coal and iron-ore needed for the new factories. Britain also had many overseas colonies which provided cheap raw materials such as cotton from India and large markets to sell the finished products. Another key fact is that Britain had people who were willing to invest and take risks as well as some wonderful inventors.
8. The very first factories used water-power. This meant they had to be built beside rivers and often in out of reach places in order to have a sufficient water flow to turn the giant water-wheels.
9. He was an engineer from Scotland who was the first to perfect a better type of steam-engine that could turn the giant wheels used in factories
10. These factories could be built in large towns and cities. Workers had to work very long hours for low pay. Women and children made up a large part of the workforce. Factory floor was extremely noisy, damp, humid. Many workers developed health problems. There were many accidents in these factories. Most workers had a 6 day work-week.
11. To put pressure on employers to reduce the amount of hours that people had to work, especially women and children. It was quite difficult to enforce or make progress as many of the large rich industrialists were also the same people who controlled the Parliament.
12. They were the people who demanded better rights for workers.
13. He was a factory owner from Scotland who was concerned about the health and welfare of his workers. He provided them with good housing and a school for children who were not allowed to work in the factories.


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